What are the symptoms of Pleural Mesothelioma (lung membrane cancer), which is very common due to asbestos exposure? How is it diagnosed? How is the cure? What is the best treatment for you?
Cancer, a disease directly related to environmental factors, is the fearful dream of those who are intertwined with carcinogenic substances such as asbestos. The biggest role in the emergence of lung cancer is asbestos, which is used in industry.
Most lung membrane tumors are caused by metastatic cancers. The proportion of primary tumors does not exceed 3 percent. The most common visible pleural mesothelioma tumor; in addition to the pulmonary membrane, the abdominal membrane is rarely caused by the heart membrane. The distribution of the tumor by country varies by region.
Asbestos is widely used!
Exposure to a substance called asbestos is very important for cancer formation. In the stories of those who have this disease, 70 percent of them have contact with asbestos.
The relationship between asbestos and lung membrane tumors was first revealed by scientists in 1960.
Apart from occupational exposure, the threat of environmental asbestos is also an important problem
Average age of occurrence 60
Asbestos is mostly produced in Canada and plays a role in many industrial activities around the world. From roofing to insulation to car linings, it has entered many areas of our lives. Although it is being controlled around the world, it is still one of the largest sources of income in Canada.
Lung membrane cancer can be confused with the adeno carcinoma group. Pathologists need to distinguish between these two diseases very well. The incidence of lung cancers is intense between the ages of 40 and 70 and the average age of the case is 60.
What are the symptoms of pleural mesothelioma (lung membrane cancer)?
Lung membrane tumors; with chest pain and shortness of breath. In 95 percent of cases, fluid is initially present in the pulmonary membrane. Cough, weight loss and fever can be seen.
The gap between the growth of the tumor and the pleural membrane is completely lost. The lung is completely surrounded by tumoral tissue and becomes inoperable.
Emergency intervention is required in case of difficulty swallowing, hoarseness due to the pressure of the tumor on the nerves, fluid collection in the heart membrane, edema in the head and severe shortness of breath.
Symptoms of the disease cause unbearable pain. With the progression of the tumor, the dose of shortness of breath and pain increases. The tumor that surrounds the pulmonary membrane like armor limits the movements of the lung.
Pleural Mesothelioma in 3 questions
Question: What is pleural mesothelioma (lung cancer) and why does it occur?
Answer: Pleural Mesothelioma is a very common disease, while the incidence in the world is 1-2 per 1 million people. The cause of the disease is the unconscious use of asbestos.
Asbestos is used in house building in many areas. Asbestos exposure is also seen in various professions. An interesting point is that the signs and symptoms of mesothelioma can appear within 20 to 50 years after asbestos exposure.
Question: What are the symptoms of pleural mesothelioma and how is it diagnosed?
Answer: Pleural Mesothelioma is usually a disease that is found by the accumulation of water in the chest cavity and the most common complaining is pain and progressive shortness of breath.
In addition, coughing, blood coming from the mouth, weight loss, loss of appetite, fatigue, weakness are also seen in patients.
Scans for pleural mesothelioma
The patient is primarily given lung film and tomography, although some typical findings can be detected in these, the standard method used for definitive diagnosis is biopsy. First of all, samples are taken from the fluid accumulated in the lung and sent to pathology for examination.
If the diagnosis cannot be made with the result, a biopsy of the pulmonary membrane is performed. Biopsy can be performed by needle or surgical method. It is also applied to the patient in pet-CT, ultra sonography and MRI examinations to investigate cancer spread.
Question: How is pleural mesothelioma treated?
Answer: The driving force of the treatment is the result of biopsy and the stage of the disease. There are 3 types of mesothelioma. There is only the chance of surgery of the type that is epithelial. In patients with sarcomatoid and mix, the patient is referred to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
When we perform staging, mesotheliomas are divided into 4 stages, only very early stage patients with stage 1 or 2 have a chance of surgical treatment. Unfortunately, since the disease has developed insidiously over the years and started to make findings late, when diagnosed, the disease usually progresses to very advanced stages.
Open and closed surgical methods in the treatment of mesothelioma
Here, the surgeon decides the form of the surgery according to the patient’s findings. There are various surgical techniques ranging from the complete removal of the lung, diaphragm and heart membrane, to peeling only the lung membranes or removing only that tumorous part if it is in a limited area.
Treatment of pleural mesothelioma (lung membrane cancer) chemoradiotherapy
Chemoradiotherapy is applied in patients who are not suitable for surgery, patients who develop tumors again after surgery or in patients where the tumor spreads to other organs. Chemotherapy is not as successful as other tumors because blood supply is somewhat weak in such tumors, but more successful results have been obtained with constantly renewed protocols.
The success of radiotherapy is limited again, since the disease is in a very large area and there are vital organs that can be damaged, so the amount of radiation that can be given is limited, which limits the success of the treatment.
Sometimes the patient is only given procedures to reduce shortness of breath and pain. Fluid is often collected in the lungs of these patients, these fluids are drained by inserting chest tubes, and gluing process (pleuridesis) is performed to prevent fluid collection again.
Low doses of chemoradiotherapies are given. The aim of these is to extend the life expectancy of the patient and to ensure that he or she lives as high a quality life as possible. However, as with any disease, our main goal here is prevention first and then early diagnosis and treatment.
How is pleural mesothelioma diagnosed?
The case of pulmonary membrane cancer is observed with fluid in the lung film. Thickening of the pulmonary membrane, nodules or masses are widely monitored. Computed tomography (CT) is effective in determining the prevalence of the disease.
In 92 percent of patients, thickening of the membrane and fluid is seen in 74 percent. Fluid accumulation and cystic thickening are also seen in the other lung. MRI, i.e. magnetic resonance imaging, plays an important role in the diagnosis of this disease.
Fluid collected in the pulmonary membrane as a result of MRI; it appears as dark, sticky, sometimes bloody liquid.
A trucut biopsy accompanied by ultrasound (USG) also helps clarify the diagnosis. In addition, open biopsy gives much more guaranteed results.
The pulmonary membrane is a sensitive area and a nerve-rich area. There’s a membrane on a lung. And then there’s the membrane that covers the inside of the rib cage. These 2 membranes normally make certain secretions. It keeps 300–500 cm3 of water in the rib cage. There a heap of elements is taken, a heap of elements are discarded. A slippery floor is formed in the rib cage and the movement of the lung is ensured.
Normally water is given and taken. But in lung disease, water is given, but it can’t be more or less reversed. When he can’t get it back, the water builds up and puts pressure on the lung. And the pain occurs. If the slightest change in the lung membrane is seen in the patient who has a lung film, a CT scan should be performed.
If a CT X-ray reveals fluid in the lung
Diseases of the pulmonary membrane are divided into two parts. There are diseases of inflammation and there are tumor diseases. They are dry and watery inflammations of the pulmonary membrane. Fluid should be taken when the slightest thickness and water collection is seen in the pulmonary membrane.
The test is examined for both germs and cancer. In terms of microbes, both simple microbes and tuberculosis microbes have to be examined. Because it is tuberculosis that makes the lung membrane the most sick, this examination should be done. When there’s a puddle or thickening of the lung membrane, you have to think about tuberculosis. Then you have to think about cancer in plan 2, and then there are other diseases.
If inflammatory cells come in the fluid taken, antibiotics etc. are given. And the patient is followed. If water is withdrawn after 1-2 months, treatment is suspended for a certain period of time and followed up. During this treatment, there may be thickening of the lung, and secondly, the resistance of the body’s immune system decreases.
In the thickening of the pulmonary membrane, if it cannot be regressed with drugs, the pulmonary membrane is surgically peeled off. And the lung will do the same. If we detect tuberculosis, we’ll be on tuberculosis medication for at least 3 months. After 3 months, it is checked again by CT scan, if the tuberculosis does not reged, if the pulmonary membrane thickens, if there is an increase in fluid, we wait no more than 3 months and surgically clean the tuberculous membrane to open the lung.
How is pleural mesothelioma treated?
There are 3 types of Pleural Mesothelioma malignantion. We usually operate on 1 and 3, but there’s no type 2 surgery. Previously, in these surgeries, all the lungs were removed, then the entire pulmonary membrane was removed and the heart membrane was removed. The abdominal membrane was being removed. The chest was completely emptied. Now, if it’s common, we take the entire lung membrane and relieve the lung. Treatment of mesothelioma is 3 stages. Normally, the patient has to go through all 3 stages.
1- Surgical treatment
2- Drug treatment
3- Ray treatment
These are done by changing the order of the patient. Missing one causes the treatment to be unfinished. Patients can get rid of pleural mesothelioma. The main goal should be prevention rather than fear of cancer.
What is good for pleural mesothelioma (lung membrane cancer)?
To support treatment:
The most important food recommended for supporting lung cancer patients is caraturp. Ridge radish is also preferable. Carrots, black radish, blackberries, black grapes, strawberries, raspberries and blueberries, which are rich in beta carotene, are also recommended for patients. Eating plenty of yogurt instead of quail eggs and milk helps patients feel good about themselves.
One teaspoon of turmeric should be consumed per day and the patient should avoid white sugar, white flour and brown sugar completely. It is known that drinking five cups of sugar-free coffee a day also supports treatment. It is claimed that the plant Boswelia Serrata reduces lung adhesion, while the astragalus plant is useful in animal experiments.
Teas such as parsley, cherry stalks, cornflour, avocado, bay leaf are recommended as a urine remover. The benefits of green tea, nettle leaves and root have also been seen in animal experiments.