What is catastrophizing? Catastrophizing is a way of thinking called a ‘cognitive distortion.’ A person who catastrophizes usually sees an unfavorable outcome to an event and then decides that if this outcome does happen, the results will be a disaster.
Here are some examples of catastrophizing:
“If I fail this test, I will never pass school, and I will be a total failure in life.”
“If I don’t recover quickly from this procedure, I will never get better, and I will be disabled my entire life.”
“If my partner leaves me, I will never find anyone else, and I will never be happy again.”
The primary difference between anxiety and catastrophizing is that anxiety can play a useful role in a person’s life. For example, anxiety can be a positive emotion because it can help a person to be protective of themselves. However, catastrophizing does not usually have any benefits.
Having these catastrophic thoughts can fill a person’s mind with unnecessary emotions that take time and thought away from the reality of a situation. While both anxiety and catastrophizing can be harmful, anxiety can be beneficial in some circumstances.
Link to depression
Depression, or prolonged feelings of helplessness and sadness, is also connected to catastrophizing. When a person experiences prolonged feelings of hopelessness, they may tend to catastrophize and imagine the worst will happen.
Your brain is prone to catastrophizing. Here is how to combat it:
Your brain is trying to protect you by making you believe the world is out to get you. Luckily, you aren’t alone in this. Everyone deals with catastrophizing at some point ― even therapists. Here’s how they tackle it:
1- Question the thoughts
Anna Zuidema, the clinical director of Good Life Therapy, said that her go-to method for combating thoughts of catastrophe is to question them. This approach helps to confront and challenge these automatic thoughts in the present moment to identify whether there’s an actual threat, or if it’s a product of our negative thinking patterns.
“When faced with a negative thought, I stop and ask myself, ‘What’s the evidence that I have for that thought?’ I look at it and ask myself if it makes sense — is it realistic or rational?” she explained.
By doing this, you’ll realize that your worst-case thoughts aren’t actually rooted in facts. When this happens, Zuidema said she then challenges herself to “come up with ways it isn’t and question what else it could be.”
2- Reframe the thoughts
After you’ve interrogated your thoughts, if they’re not rooted in facts, then this would be a good time to try reframing — a tactic that works for Shagoon Maurya, a counseling psychologist and psychotherapist who works with clients virtually.
“Challenge your negative thoughts by coming up with at least three other ways that situation could go. Furthermore, replace the pessimistic outcome with an optimistic one. This will help your brain incorporate more possibilities and therefore have a realistic approach,” she said.
3- Name and validate your emotions
Ibinye Osibodu-Onyali, a licensed marriage and family therapist at The Zinnia Practice, said she finds it helpful to name her emotions.
“[When I realize I’m] making a mountain out of a molehill and that the mountain is built on fear, anxiety or stress, I name my emotions, validate the emotions, take a 10-minute timeout to breathe, and then I come back to tackle the situation,” she said. “If I can’t seem to get out of these thought spirals, I reach out to a loved one who is very rational. They help walk me through the thought spirals and remind me that it is my fear or anxiety talking. Once I have calmed down, I can then work on problem-solving.”
4- Identify the trigger and make a plan
People often say awareness is the first step, and this is the case for Rhoads. Being aware of what triggers your catastrophizing will ultimately help you to stop this thought pattern.
Rhoads said her triggers include not taking enough breaks during the workday, being “hangry,” having a problem she can’t immediately solve and being anxious.
“I try to plan for those events and things as best as I can,” Rhoads said. “Always having a snack on-hand, asking for help in solving a problem, talking to my partner about how we’re going to tackle said anxiety-provoking situation, etc.”
In a similar manner, if your trigger is associated with doomscrolling, then taking some time away from social media might be a good place to start.
Reframing your thoughts, along with other techniques, can help minimize catastrophizing.
5- Write it all down
Once you’ve put down your phone and closed your laptop, consider grabbing your journal. According to Brian Wind, a clinical psychologist and chief clinical officer of Journey Pure, journaling can be a great way to deal with catastrophizing.
“It’s a way of expressing the thoughts in my head. I write about what worries me and the events leading up to it,” he said.
After that, he implements a couple practices mentioned above.
“Next, I challenge my worries and write down other possible outcomes that could also happen with equal probability. This helps me reframe my mind, challenge anxious thoughts and acknowledge that there can be other possible outcomes other than the worst-case scenario that I’m imagining,” he explained.
6- Practice mindfulness
“Mindfulness and acceptance are the two major antidotes to catastrophizing,” said Noël Hunter, licensed clinical psychologist and director of MindClear Integrative Psychotherapy in New York. “The key is being able to notice when the what-if spiral is beginning and try to bring yourself back to the present moment.”
You can do this by implementing a few breathing techniques, like inhaling for four seconds and exhaling for four seconds. You can also do a grounding exercise: Mentally acknowledge five things you can see, four things you can touch, three things you can hear, two things you can smell and one thing you can taste. Do this until you’re more fully in the present moment.
“Yes, terrible things might happen tomorrow, but right here at this moment I am just fine,” Hunter added. “Building up the resilience to accept that we can’t control bad things from happening is what can allow us to essentially get off the what-if train.”
7- Tell your brain you don’t need the alarm
For Shannon Garcia, a psychotherapist at States of Wellness Counseling, addressing her own mind helps to kick her catastrophizing.
“I will say to my brain, ‘thank you, but no thank you,’” she said. “This acknowledges that my brain felt there was a threat and at the same time the catastrophizing thought is not needed right now. It’s my way of turning off that anxiety alarm.”
8- Distract yourself
For the moments when challenging and reframing the thoughts feel like too much effort, consider a temporary distraction.
“I use distraction when challenging the thoughts is difficult,” Garcia said. “If it’s a particularly stubborn catastrophizing thought, I will do something else to give my brain a rest. That might be watching a funny TV show or going for a walk with my husband and kid.”
9- Be gentle with yourself
Constantly sorting through thoughts of worst-case scenarios can probably feel exhausting. Be kind to yourself during this time, said Avigail Lev, a psychotherapist in California.
“Practice using self-compassion techniques to make friends with these difficult feelings and sensations,” she said. “Put your hand on your heart, gently rubbing it and sending it warmth and comfort. Stay present and kind with your experience in the same way that you would with a crying baby. Bringing the experience closer, staying loving and kind with it, and making space for all these difficult emotions and sensations in your body.”
Lev added that if it helps, try repeating some compassionate phrases to yourself. For example, “it makes sense that I feel scared” or “it makes sense that I feel helpless in this situation.”
10- Seek professional help
Even your therapist has a therapist. If you find that you absolutely can’t stop catastrophizing and it appears to be causing you anxiety, it might be time to see a professional, Osibodu-Onyali said.
“Sometimes catastrophizing can also cause you to feel stuck and unable to take action,” Osibodu-Onyali added. “It could also cause you to become impulsive and make decisions that you otherwise regret. Also, if catastrophizing is causing you emotional distress, adversely affecting your relationships with others or your work, then it might be wise to speak to a professional.”
Six tips to manage catastrophic thinking
Mental health experts often use techniques known as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to help a person address their catastrophic thinking.
These techniques require the person to be aware that they are experiencing catastrophic thinking, to recognize their actions, and to try to stop and correct their irrational thinking.
Six tips to accomplish this include remembering and making use of the following techniques. These can help to manage the condition:
Acknowledging that unpleasant things happen: Life is full of challenges as well as good and bad days. Just because one day is bad does not mean all days will be bad.
Recognizing when thoughts are irrational: Catastrophizing often follows a distinct pattern. A person will start with a thought, such as “I am hurting today.” They will then expand on the thought with worry and anxiety, such as, “The pain is only going to get worse,” or “This hurting means I’ll never get better.” When a person learns to recognize these thoughts, they are better equipped to handle them.
Saying “stop!”: To cease the repetitive, catastrophic thoughts, a person may have to say out loud or in their head “stop!” or “no more!” These words can keep the stream of thoughts from continuing and help a person change the course of their thinking.
Thinking about another outcome: Instead of thinking about a negative outcome, consider a positive one or even a less-negative option.
Offering positive affirmations: When it comes to catastrophic thinking, a person has to believe in themselves and that they can overcome their tendency to fear the worst. They may wish to repeat a positive affirmation to themselves on a daily basis.
Practicing excellent self-care: Catastrophic thoughts are more likely to take over when a person is tired and stressed. Getting enough rest and engaging in stress-relieving techniques, such as exercise, meditation, and journaling, can all help a person feel better.
Medical treatment if necessary
Most people experience fear and worry at some time.
However, if a person constantly fears the worst or hears from their friends and family that they are thinking in this way, they may need to address their catastrophic thinking.
If a person has an underlying medical condition, such as depression, a doctor may prescribe antidepressant medications to help.
Examples of these include:
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s): Examples include fluoxetine (Prozac) and paroxetine (Paxil). These medicines increase the amount of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. They are often the first-line treatment for people with depression but may also be prescribed for a variety of anxiety disorders.
Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs): Examples of these include duloxetine (Cymbalta) and venlafaxine (Effexor). These medications increase the amount of serotonin as well as norepinephrine in the brain.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA’s): These drugs include amitriptyline and nortriptyline (Pamelor). Doctors do not prescribe TCA’s very often today because of their undesirable side effects.
Atypical antidepressants: These medications do not fit into a particular category regarding how they work. Examples include bupropion (Wellbutrin, Aplenzin) and trazodone.
Sometimes, a doctor may initially prescribe one type of medication that may not be effective in reducing both depression and catastrophizing. In this case, the doctor may prescribe another medication.