Most of the women may experience physiological and psychological problems before menstruation. Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS), which is also referred to as premenstrual tension syndrome in society, negatively affects women’s daily lives.
The complaints faced by women with the syndrome may also differ according to their living space. While psychological symptoms are more common in those who live in city life, physical findings come to the fore in those who live in natural life in rural areas. The negative effects of PMS can be mitigated with lifestyle changes and medications.
Experts gave information about premenstrual tension syndrome and treatment methods.
Affects 80 percent of women
Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS), which affects approximately 80 percent of the female population in the world, usually starts after the ovulation stage and continues until menstrual bleeding. Mild symptoms in most women are severe in women in the 5th percentile. Conditions where the symptoms are very severe are called Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder or Late Luteal Phase Disorder as a psychiatric disorder.
Sensitivity to hormone changes is among the reasons
Although the cause of this syndrome cannot be determined exactly; In current researches, the susceptibility of the central nervous system is shown as the reason. In other words, the cause of PMS; In women, it is seen as the body’s hypersensitivity to the normal changes in hormones rather than the imbalance of hormones that occur during this period. In women who are sensitive to hormone changes, this situation depends on many factors and may be partially genetically inherited.
Both physical and mental symptoms appear
Symptoms of premenstrual tension syndrome, which is observed in women of reproductive age, which is the most common period of regular menstruation; It is classified as spiritual, behavioral and physical. Among the mental and behavioral symptoms; depression, weakness, excessive desire to sleep, increased sexual desire, irritability, nervousness, anxiety and lack of attention, appetite changes and food cravings. Growth and sensitization of the breasts, edema, headache, constipation and diarrhea, excessive thirst, acne on the skin and abdominal pain also constitute physical symptoms.
Psychological approaches and drug treatments can be applied
The main goal of PMS treatment is to reduce symptoms and improve a person’s quality of life. The treatment of the disease is divided into two as drug and psychological approaches.
Psychological approaches: Generally, psychoeducation and lifestyle regulation measures are sufficient in women with mild symptoms. However, exercise, relaxation, and cognitive behavioral therapy are recommended.
Birth control pills: If the patient’s premenstrual symptoms have started or worsened after the use of anti-pregnancy medication, then it is helpful to switch to another preparation or apply another method of birth control.
Drug treatment: The most commonly used drugs in premenstrual tension syndrome (PMS) are antidepressant drugs from the serotonin reuptake inhibitor group, which act on serotonin, which is also thought to be effective in pathophysiology.
Hormonal therapy: Another of the biological treatments used in PMS is hormonal treatments. Hormonal treatment strategies are based on the fact that premenstrual symptoms are associated with hormonal changes in the menstrual cycle, and in most cases the goal is to suppress ovulation.
Dietary and lifestyle changes: Some dietary supplements are also recommended in PMS. But with some exceptions, there is little scientific evidence to suggest that these supplements are effective. These patients are recommended vitamin B6, magnesium, calcium and vitamin d supplements. Promising agents include calcium supplementation, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) supplementation, B1 and vitamin E, especially if accompanied by pelvic pain, a diet consisting of complex carbohydrates, and the use of vitex agnus castus (Bitter Tree). Women who took 80 mg of vitamin B6 daily had a decrease in psychiatric symptoms.
You can spend the premenstrual tension syndrome more comfortably with these recommendations:
- Those who experience PMS should first change their lifestyle and differentiate their habits.
- Consumption such as alcohol, cigarettes, salt, coffee and sugar should be avoided or restricted
- An active lifestyle should be adopted, physical activities should be done regularly
- In addition to consumption as food, vitamins and minerals should be taken as supplements
- Sleep patterns should be stable, bedtime and waking times should not be changed as much as possible and sleep quality should be ensured
- In order to both distract attention from PMS symptoms and reduce stress, participation in social activities should be ensured and efforts should be made in different areas
- In order to remove the swelling that occurs during the PMS period, plenty of water should be drunk and balanced nutrition should be taken care of, and if necessary, birth control pills should be started to reduce hormonal changes.
- The symptoms of some disorders, such as chronic fatigue syndrome, thyroid disorders, mood disorders such as depression and anxiety, may resemble premenstrual tension syndrome. In order to make a differential diagnosis of these diseases, some tests should be performed and treatments should be applied accordingly.